The resistor is one
of the simplest component types. A resistor's function is (as the
name suggests) to resist electric current. Electrical resistance is
somewhat analogous to friction, in that resistance sloughs off some of
the electrical energy going through a circuit and converts it to heat.

Technically, just about everything in a circuit has some resistance,
even the wires, although that's all usually small enough that we
mostly ignore it. Resistors usually have much higher resistance
than what's naturally there from the wires and the rest. Resistors
are useful because they let us insert a specific amount of resistance
into a circuit just where we need it, to control the way current
flows.

Most resistors look something like the ones pictures at right: a
little roughly-cylindrical main body with a wire coming out of each
end. (It's usually more of a dumbbell shape than a true cylinder, but
close enough.) This main body can range in length from a few
millimeters to about an inch. The body is marked with colored stripes
that use a secret code to indicate the resistance value. If you buy
your resistors from someone like Mouser that packages each component
in a clearly marked plastic bag, you probably won't have to bother
learning to read the color code, but it's explained below in case
you're interested.

All of the resistors on the Pinscape board are the same shape: little
cylinders with wire leads sticking out of each end. Most of the ones
on the parts list are rather tiny "thin film" resistors, most only a a
few millimeters in length.

The install location for a resistor on the circuit board is marked
with a little outline of the resistor showing how it'll look when
installed, when viewed from straight overhead. This shows an outline
of the barrel-shaped body, with lines on either side representing
the wire leads.

The lines sticking out of the body-shape outline extend to the solder
pads where the resistor is installed.

A resistor's wire leads will usually start out sticking straight
out from the resistor body. You have to bend the leads at a 90°
angle on either side of the body to fit it into the board, like this:

Use the spacing of the holes as a guide to where to make the bends.
The holes are usually placed so that you simply have to bend the leads
as close to the resistor body as you comfortably can. You can just
bend the leads by hand, but you'll get sharper corners if you use
needle-nose pliers, which can make the resistor fit into the board
more easily.

Once the leads are bent to fit the hole spacing in the board, fit
the ends of the leads into holes, and feed them all the way through
until the resistor is seated more or less flat against the board.

As always, there's no need to force anything - just get the resistor
as close to flat as you comfortably can. The fit is sometimes a
little too tight to get it perfectly flat, which is okay.

Once the part is in place, hold it there, flip the board over, and
solder the leads to the pads on the bottom of the board. Snip off
excess length from the leads after the solder cools.

Resistors are represented on schematics as a jagged lines, as shown at
right. They're usually marked with an **R***number* reference
designator, such as R5 or R10. The "R" is for resistor, and the number is
arbitrary, purely to match up against the parts list. Designators
always have to be unique within the whole schematic, so that each
part can be individually identified. Resistors on schematics are also
usually labeled with the resistance value in Ohms, which we'll come to
shortly. In this case, the "4.7K" label means 4.7 Kilo Ohms = 4,700
Ohms.

Somewhat confusingly, the symbol "R" is *also* used as a
substitute for the Ω symbol for Ohms, so you might see a
resistor with the pair of labels "R6" and "4R7". The one with the
number *after* the R is the part label, so this is part number
R6. The one with the number *before* the R is the Ohms value.
In this case, we have a number both before and after the "R", which
you should read by replacing the "R" with a decimal point and using
the result as a number of Ohms: so "4R7" means 4.7 Ohms. In my own
schematics and boards, I prefer to keep all of the digits before the
"R" and simply use regular decimal points, so I'd write 4.7R in this
case. But you might see the "4R7" type notation in other people's
schematics and boards. The same convention applies to the K (for
Kilo Ω) and M (for Mega Ω) symbols, so you might see
4K7 instead of 4.7K, or 1M2 instead of 1.2M.

Here's a summary of the common formats:

**47R**means**47 Ohms****4R7**means**4.7 Ohms****47K**means**47 Kilo Ohms**= 47 kΩ = 47000 Ohms**4K7**means**4.7 Kilo Ohms**= 4.7 kΩ = 4700 Ohms**47M**means**47 Mega Ohms**= 47 MΩ = 47,000,000 Ohms**4M7**means, you guessed it,**4.7 Mega Ohms**= 4.7 MΩ = 4,700,000 Ohm

The main parameter for selecting a resistor
is the resistance in Ohms. In some cases, it's also necessary to pick
a resistor with a high enough power handling capacity in Watts.

Pay close attention to the "K" or "M", and especially pay attention to
the **absence** of a "K" or "M". One of the most common mistakes
that people make when reading schematics or parts lists is to assume
that resistor values are always in "Kilo Ohms" even when they don't
see a "K" in the Ohms value. This especially happens with LED
resistors, which are sometimes really tiny values like 4.7 ohms. A
lot of people see that "4.7" and think that there was supposed to be a
"K" there because there's *always* a "K" there! They think maybe
the "K" was left out by accident, or it's one of those conventions
where engineers leave out some implied information because everyone
knows it's always there whether it's stated or not. There really are
a lot of situations like that in engineering, but this isn't one of
them! If there's no "K" stated, there really is no "K". "4.7 Ohms"
is a perfectly valid resistor value, and it's very, very different
from "4.7 K Ohms". So always pay attention to whether or not a "K" is
there.

You might sometimes see a different notation in schematic drawings and
on printed circuit boards. In these contexts, it's become
conventional to replace the symbol Ω with the letter R, in part
because of the difficulty of writing Ω on older computer
systems. If you see 100R, it means the same thing as 100Ω. You
might see an even stranger notation, with numbers on both sides of the
"R", as in "6R8". In this case, replace the R with a decimal point:
so 6R8 means 6.8Ω. Similarly, 4K7 means 4.7 KΩ. There's
a method to the madness here: they use this notation because decimal
points aren't always legible in schematics, and can be especially
impossible to see in the tiny text silk-screened onto circuit boards.

There are no markings on a resistor's physical package to tell you the
wattage value (the way the color stripes tell you the Ohms value).
The only way to find the wattage is to refer to the package the
resistor came in. When you're buying resistors, though, it's one of
the parameters you can use to select parts.

In the parts lists in this guide, we'll always tell you if you need a
specific wattage. In most cases, any wattage rating will work,
because in most cases the actual power usage will be less than 1/8 W,
which is almost always the smallest wattage value that they make
resistors in at all. If we don't say anything about wattage, you can
go by the Ohms value alone and choose a resistor with any wattage
rating. In cases where a specific wattage **is** required in a
parts list, it's always a **minimum**. You can use any resistor
rated for that wattage or higher. For example, if a parts list calls
for a 1/2W resistor, you can use a resistor with a 1/2W rating, or a
1W rating, or anything higher. But do be aware that a higher wattage
rating usually means the resistor is physically larger, so don't go
overboard. If you're going to use a resistor in a circuit board, you
don't want to get something so huge it won't fit in its allotted
space.

Most resistors are marked with a set of color stripes that tell you
the resistance value of the part, using a special color code system.

Color-coded resistors are marked with three, four, or five stripes.

If there are **three stripes**, all three stripes represent the
resistance value in ohms, as explained below.

If there are **four stripes**, three of them should be grouped
together and one should be set apart by an extra-wide gap.
The three grouped stripes represent the Ohms value, exactly
like a three-stripe resistor, and the separate fourth stripe
represents the "tolerance" value. Both are described below.

If the resistor has **five stripes**, the first four represent
the Ohms value, and the fifth represents the tolerance.

The Ohms value of a resistor can be read from the group of three
stripes in a three- or four-stripe resistor, or the group of four
stripes in a five-stripe resistor.

The first step is to read the colors, starting with the one
nearest the end. If you've already found the "tolerance" stripe,
start at the opposite end from that. Otherwise, start at the stripe
closest to an end.

The next step is to convert the colors to digits, using this table:

Color | Digit | Multiplier (10^{X}) | |
---|---|---|---|

Black | 0 | 1 | |

Brown | 1 | 10 | |

Red | 2 | 100 | |

Orange | 3 | 1,000 | |

Yellow | 4 | 10,000 | |

Green | 5 | 100,000 | |

Blue | 6 | 1,000,000 | |

Violet | 7 | 10,000,000 | |

Gray | 8 | 100,000,000 | |

White | 9 | 1,000,000,000 | |

Gold | 0.1 | ||

Silver | 0.01 | ||

Finally, string the digits together into a number, like so:

As you can see, the last stripe represents a power-of-ten multiplier. You can
read it as 10^{X}, using the same color-to-digit mapping to get the X value.
Or you can just use the "multiplier" value in the table above, which we wrote out
for each power of ten. It's the same value either way.

You might notice that gold and silver are special cases. They
represent 10^{-1} (0.1) and 10^{-2} (0.01)
respectively. You'll never see them in a "digit" slot - only as a
multiplier.

For example, for Yellow-Violet-Red, you'd read this as A=Yellow=4, B=Violet=7, X=Red=2,
so you'd form the numeric value as

That means you have a 4700 Ohm resistor, usually written as 4.7KΩ or just 4.7K.
1KΩ = 1000&Omega, and 1MΩ = 1,000,000Ω.

If the resistor has four stripes, one of them, always at one end,
is the "precision" or "tolerance" stripe. If the resistor has
five stripes, the fifth is the precision stripe. This extra stripe
should be separated from the other stripes by an extra-wide
gap, to visually identify it as standing apart from the others.

This extra stripe tells you how carefully calibrated the resistor is.
Some situations call for very precisely calibrated resistors, others
only need something approximate. It's more expensive to manufacture
parts with better calibration, so the manufacturers offer cheaper,
less precise parts for when you don't care, and pricier, better
calibrated parts for when you do. This stripe tells you what sort you
have in hand.

The tolerance is expressed as a plus-or-minus percentage value.
A tolerance of ±10% means that the resistance of the part
is within 10% of the resistor's nominal value, above or below.
For example, a 100 Ohm resistor with a 10% tolerance (silver
stripe) should have an actual resistance value within 10 Ohms
of the nominal 100 Ohms, meaning the actual resistance should
be from 90 Ohms to 110 Ohms.

If there are only three stripes, the tolerance is implicitly 20%.

Here are the code colors:

- Brown = ±1%
- Red = ±2%
- Green = ±0.5%
- Blue = ±0.25%
- Violet = ±0.1%
- Gray = ±0.05%
- Gold = ±5%
- Silver = ±10%